The relationship between phonology (sounds in speech) and orthography (spelling patterns of written language)

Sound-Letter Relationships Include:   
  • English has 44 Phonemes and 26 Graphemes
  • Decoding is the application of what you know about sound-letter relationships

Approaches to Sound-Letter Relationships
  • The semantic approach is when you use clues from the context to figure out a word’s meaning
    • Cue: Does it make sense?
      • Context
      • Pictures
      • Previous Text
      • General Meaning of the Story
  • The grapho-phonic approach has to do with blending sounds and the relationships between letters and sounds.
    • Cue: Does it look right?
      • Letter Shape/Sound
      • Phonics
  • The syntactic/structural approach has to do with whether the reader thinks a word sounds right
    • Cue: Does it sound right?
      • An Acceptable English Language Construction          

Stages of Sight Word Learning
  1. Direct instruction
  2. Exposure through discussions, writing, listening to stories, ect.
  3. A combination of both
    Shedd, Meagen. (2009).  Retrieved from University of Michigan State.

Issues for SLLs
  • Some English sounds may not be sounds used in their native language so they may have a hard time pronouncing/producing the sound
  • In some languages the vowels are not letters but symbols which can make it hard for SLLs to understand the relationships between consonants and vowels as well as vowel length